This 1 is suited for programmed cell-death studies.Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex subunits of proteins involved in cell differentiation. Complex subunit associated factors are involved in hybridoma growth, Eosinohils, eritroid proliferation and derived from promotor binding stimulating subunits on the DNA binding complex. NFKB 105 subunit for example is a polypetide gene enhancer of genes in B cells.FAS ligand and other ligands are binding to the receptor for signaling pathways for example in apoptosis or JNK signaling. Receptor agonists are often tested for drug development.The receptors are ligand binding factors of type 1, 2 or 3 and protein-molecules that receive chemical-signals from outside a cell. When such chemical-signals couple or bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue-response, e.g. a change in the electrical-activity of a cell. In this sense, am olfactory receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous-chemical signals, chemokinesor cytokines e.g. an acetylcholine-receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous-ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug-targets, such as enzymes, transporters and ion-channels.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNFa, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNFb or TNF beta also bin on TNF receptors for Th1 activation.